Village Buildings bibliography

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this is the bibliography / references section for Village Buildings book / article collection. Notes:


Abarbanel, Sara, and Cassandra Bayer, Paloma Corcuera, Nancy Stetson1 [2016]. "Making a Tiny Deal Out of It: A Feasibility Study of Tiny Home Villages to Increase Affordable Housing in Lane County, Oregon." A Report for United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Portland, Oregon Field Office. May 2016. 1Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley.

Abbott, Carl (1994). "Metropolitan Portland: Reputation and Reality." Built Environment, Vol. 20, No. 1, (1994), pp. 52-64 PDF: 

Abbott, Carl and Deborah Howe. "The Politics of Land-Use Law in Oregon: Senate Bill 100, Twenty Years After." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Spring, 1993), pp. 4-35. PDF: 

Abrams, Charles. Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World. (1964). 

Agamben, Giorgio. (1998). Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

See especially Ch.7, "The Camp as the 'Nomos' of the Modern".

 "In his main work "Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life" (1998), Giorgio Agamben analyzes an obscure figure of Roman law that poses fundamental questions about the nature of law and power in general. Under the laws of the Roman Empire, a man who committed a certain kind of crime was banned from society and all of his rights as a citizen were revoked. He thus became a "homo sacer" (sacred man). In consequence, he could be killed by anybody, while his life on the other hand was deemed "sacred", so he could not be sacrificed in a ritual ceremony." [...] .
"Agamben opines that laws have always assumed the authority to define "bare life" — zoe, as opposed to bios, that is 'qualified life' — by making this exclusive operation, while at the same time gaining power over it by making it the subject of political control. The power of law to actively separate "political" beings (citizens) from "bare life" (bodies) has carried on from Antiquity to Modernity — from, literally, Aristotle to Auschwitz. Aristotle, as Agamben notes, constitutes political life via a simultaneous inclusion and exclusion of "bare life": as Aristotle says, man is an animal born to life (Gk. ζῆν, zen), but existing with regard to the good life (εὖ ζῆν, eu zen) which can be achieved through politics. Bare life, in this ancient conception of politics, is that which must be transformed, via the State, into the "good life"; that is, bare life is that which is supposedly excluded from the higher aims of the state, yet is included precisely so that it may be transformed into this "good life". Sovereignty, then, is conceived from ancient times as the power which determines what or who is to be incorporated into the political body (in accord with its bios) by means of the more originary exclusion (or exception) of what is to remain outside the political body—which is at the same time the source of that body's composition (zoe). According to Agamben, biopower, which takes the bare lives of the citizens into its political calculations, may be more marked in the modern state, but has essentially existed since the beginnings of sovereignty in the West, since this structure of ex-ception is essential to the core concept of sovereignty.
 "Agamben would continue to expand the theory of the state of exception first introduced in "Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life", ultimately leading to the "State of Exception" in 2005. Instead of leaving a space between law and life, the space where human action is possible, the space that used to constitute politics, he argues that politics has "contaminated itself with law" in the state of exception. Because "only human action is able to cut the relationship between violence and law", it becomes increasingly difficult within the state of exception for humanity to act against the State."

Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams.    
___. The Oregon Experiment, 1975.
___. A Pattern Language, 1977
___. The Timeless Way of Building, 1979.

Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015). Available at:  

Allen, John J. (2011). "The Mixed Economies of Cain and Abel: An Historical and Cultural Approach." Conversations with the Biblical World, Vol 31. [1].   

Allport, Gordon W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1954. Full text available at:

"The checkerboard of prejudice in the United States is perhaps the most intricate of all." .
"Everywhere on earth we find a condition of separateness among groups. People mate with their own kind. They eat, play, reside in homogeneous clusters...Much of this automatic cohesion is due to nothing more than convenience...most of the business of life can go on with less effort it we stick together with our own kind." (p.17-18). .
"Open-mindedness is considered to be a virtue. But, strictly speaking, it cannot occur. A new experience must be redacted into old categories. We cannot handle each even freshly in its own right." p.20 .
"Contrary evidence is not admitted and allowed to modify the generalization; rather it is perfunctorily acknowledged but excluded. Let us call this the 're-fencing' device. When a fact cannot fit into a mental field, the exception is acknowledged, but the field is hastily fenced in again and not allowed to remain dangerously open." p.23.
"the very act of affirming our way of live often leads us to the brink of prejudice." p.24

Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall"  ["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]., January 23, 2019. 

Anderson, Michelle (2008). "Cities Inside Out: Race, Poverty, and Exclusion at the Urban Fringe." 55 UCLA L. REV. 1095 (2008). discussion of "unincorporated urban areas".

Anderson, Nels. (1940). Men On the Move. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [excerpt, "An Old Problem in New Form", in Anderson, 1998].

Anderson, Nels (1998). On Hobos and Homelessness. (compilation of writings, edited and with an introduction by Raffaele Rauty). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226019666.

Anderson, Nels. (1923). The Hobo: The sociology of the homeless man. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Angst, Maggie. "Despite budget shortfall, San Jose spends $17 million on tiny homes for homeless amid the coronavirus outbreak." San Jose Mercury News, April 8, 2020.

Angst, Maggie. "Tensions mount as San Jose chooses new site for homeless housing amid coronavirus." San Jose Mercury News, April 22, 2020.

Anson, April. (2014). The World in my Backyard”: Romanticization, Thoreauvian Rhetoric, and Constructive Confrontation in the Tiny House Movement”. Research in Urban Sociology, 14, 289–314. PDF: 

Aquilino, Marie, ed. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011). ISBN 9781935202479. [1].

   Part 1. Architecture after disaster : 
Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --
Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --
News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --
From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --
   Part 2. What should governments do? : 
When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --
Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --
What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --
   Part 3. Urban risk and recovery : 
Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --
Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --
Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --
Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --
Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --
   Part 4. Environmental resilience : 
Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --
The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --
Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --
On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --
   Part 5. Teaching as strategic action : 
Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --
Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --
Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --
   Part 6. Is prevention possible? : 
More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --
Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --
Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --
Afterword: Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.

Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis. 2006.

Aubry, Tim, and Roberto Bernad, Ronni Greenwood. "A Multi-Country Study of the Fidelity of Housing First Programmes: Introduction." European Journal of Homelessness. Vol 12, No. 3.   

Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, & Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture (Routledge, 2011).  See also Spatial Agency site:  

Bagshaw, Sally. (2014). “Building on Quixote Village: Divvy Up the Responsibility”. Published online February 25, 2014 on Sally Bagshaw's Seattle City Council site.  

Barney, Liz. "Hawaii's largest homeless camp: rock bottom or a model refuge?" ["Long America’s vacation paradise, Hawaii is in a state of emergency as it battles a homelessness crisis. Could Pu’uhonua safe zones help alleviate the problem?"]. The Guardian, 22 June 2017. discussing Pu’uhonua o Waianae, or the Refuge of Waianae, named for the local town about 30 miles from Honolulu.

Barron, Patrick, and Manuela Mariani, eds (2014). Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Baumohl, Jim, ed. (1996), for the National Coalition for the Homeless. Homelessness in America. Oryx Press, 1996. 

Beard, Victoria A. (2003). "Learning Radical Planning: The Power of Collective Action." Planning Theory, Vol 2, Issue 1, 2003. PDF: 

Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." The Seattle Times, 26 February 2016.  

Beier, A. (2008). “'A New Serfdom': Labor Laws, Vagrancy Statutes, and Labor Discipline in England, 1350-1800." In Beier A. & Ocobock P. (Eds.), Cast Out: Vagrancy and Homelessness in Global and Historical Perspective (pp. 35-63). Athens: Ohio University Press.

Beier A. & Ocobock P., eds. (2008). Cast Out: Vagrancy and Homelessness in Global and Historical Perspective (pp. 35-63). Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008.

Bell, Bryan (2004). Good Deeds, Good Design: Community Service Through Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press, 2004.

Bell, Bryan, and Katie Wakeford, Steve Badanes (2008). Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism. Metropolis Books, 2008. 

Berg, Laura, ed. The First Oregonians. 2nd edition, 2007. Portland: Oregon Council for the Humanities.  

Bernheimer, Lily. "The Shape of (Housing) Things to Come." Next City, Sep 30, 2019. [excerpted from book by Bernheimer, The Shaping of Us: How Everyday Spaces Structure Our Lives, Behavior, and Well-Being, 2019].  On Alastair Parvin, WikiHouse, and Citizen Sector home-building approach. 

Bey, Hakim (Peter Lamborn Wilson). (1991). "The Temporary Autonomous Zone". in T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism. Autonomedia, 1991.

Bey, Hakim (Peter Lamborn Wilson). (1993). "Permanent TAZs." Dreamtime, Aug 1993.

"PAZ typology. A 'weird religion' or rebel art movement can become a kind of non-local PAZ, like a more intense and all-consuming hobby network. The Secret Society (like the Chinese Tong) also provides a model for a PAZ without geographic limits. But the 'perfect case scenario' involves a free space that extends into free time."

"I believe that there exist plenty of good selfish reasons for desiring the 'organic' (it's sexier), the 'natural' (it tastes better), the 'green' (it's more beautiful', the Wild(er)ness (it's more exciting). Communitas (as P. Goodman called it) and conviviality (as I. Illich called it) are more pleasurable than their opposites."

"we've had to consider the fact that not all existing autonomous zones are 'temporary'. Some are (at least by intention) more-or-less 'permanent'. Certain cracks in the Babylonian Monolith appear so vacant that whole groups can move into them and settle down. Certain theories, such as "Permaculture", have been developed to deal with this situation and make the most of it. 'Villages', 'communes', 'communities', even 'arcologies' and 'biospheres' (or other utopian-city forms) are being experimented with and imlemented. Even here however TAZ-theory may offer some useful thought-tools and clarifications."

Bhatt, Vikram, et al. "How the Other Half Builds - Vol 3: The Self-Selection Process." Centre for Minimum Cost Housing, McGill University, Research Paper No. 11, March 1990.

Blanchard, Dave. [2012]. "Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. OPB Think Out Loud, October 3rd 2012.

Boden, Paul, et al (2015). House Keys Not Handcuffs. Freedom Voices, 2015.  $19. 

Borges, Sofia, and R. Scott Mitchell (2018). Give Me Shelter: Architecture Takes on the Homeless Crisis. ORO Editions, February 1, 2018)

"Give Me Shelter documents the work of the MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio at the USC School of Architecture and their solutions for tackling the Los Angeles homeless crisis through design, compassion, and humanity. The book features exclusive content from leaders in the field including Michael Maltzan, Ted Hayes, Betty Chinn, Gregory Kloehn, Skid Row Housing Trust, and many more. Paired with a forward by Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles, Give Me Shelter provides an in-depth look at how design can bridge the gap in services to get people off the streets and into housing sooner."  

Bratt, R, C. Hartman, & A. Meyerson, eds. (1986). Critical perspectives on housing. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (Available for online loan from Internet Archive: [An excellent and extensive collection of essays from many prominent researchers/writers on housing, generally from a progressive viewpoint].

Brighenti, Andrea Mubi, ed. (2013). Urban Interstices: The Aesthetics and the Politics of the In-between. Ashgate Publishing, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4724-1001-6.

Brown, Emily. "Overcoming the Barriers to Micro-Housing: Tiny Houses, Big Potential." Thesis project for MCRP degree, University of Oregon, Department of Planning, Public Policy and Management, 2016.

Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).

Budnick, Nick. "The Duke of Dignity Village" [:"Ibrahim Mubarak has learned that a homeless utopia is easier to conceive than to achieve"]. Willamette Week, September 17, 2002  Updated January 24, 2017. 

Burman, Kara Grace. "Liminal Dwelling: Support for Street Residents, a Place of Re-integration and Transition." M.Arch thesis, Dalhousie University
Halifax, Nova Scotia. March 2017.

Burt, M. R. (2003). "Chronic Homelessness: Emergence of a Public Policy." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30(3) pp.1267–79.

Burt, Martha, et al. "Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing?" 7 (2001). 

Butigan, Ken. "Olympia’s homeless win struggle for permanent housing." ["With the opening of Quixote Village, an innovative compound of 30 small cottages and a community center in Olympia, Wash., the six-year struggle of the homeless has finally paid off"]. Waging Nonviolence, January 3, 2014

Calfee C, Weissman E (2012). "Permission to Transition: Zoning and the Transition Movement." Planning & Environmental Law 64(5):3-10. DOI: 10.1080/15480755.2012.683689.  PDF:

Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit."  Accessed 19 November 2019. 

Chapin, Ross. Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World. (2011). 

Chernoff S (1983). "Behind the Smokescreen: Exclusionary Zoning of Mobile Homes." Washington University Journal of Urban & Contemporary Law. 25:235-268.

Chomei, Kamo, et al. Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler. 

City Repair Project (2006). The City Repair Project’s Placemaking Guidebook. ["Collectively authored and edited"]. 1st edition, 2003; 2nd edition, 2006.
License:  Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5.

Clark, Bryan. "San Jose will build ‘up to 500’ tiny homes for coronavirus-affected homeless residents." The Next Web, April 9 2020.

Community Planning Workshop (University of Oregon). "Providing for the Unhoused: A Review of Transitional Housing Strategies in Eugene." October 2015.

Corr, Anders. No Trespassing!: Squatting, Rent Strikes, and Land Struggles Worldwide.1999.

Culhane, Dennis P. & Stephen Metraux. "Rearranging the Deck Chairs or Reallocating the Lifeboats? Homelessness Assistance and Its Alternatives." Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol 74, Issue 1, 2008, pp111-121.  [full text].

Cunningham, Ward. "Writing with Strangers." (undated; accessed April 2, 2020).

Cunningham. Ward. Keynote speech at Write the Docs conference, May 19, 2015. patterns model:  I think of as a sort of "modularization of experience".

Cuny, Frederick C. (1983). Disasters and Development. 1983. Full text:

Davies, Daniel (series creator). "Rebel Architecture." Al Jazeera English, 2014-16. ["A six-part [or more?] documentary series profiling architects who are using design as a form of activism and resistance to tackle the world's urban, environmental and social crises"].

Davis, Ian (1978). Shelter After Disaster

Davis, Sam (2014). Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. University of California Press (2004).

"Written by an architect who has been designing and building affordable housing for thirty years, this well-illustrated book is both a call to create well-designed places for the homeless and a review of innovative and successful building designs that now serve diverse communities across the United States. Sam Davis argues for safe and functional architectural designs and programs that symbolically reintegrate the homeless into society in buildings that offer beauty, security, and hope to those most in need."

Dearborn, Lynne M., and Abbilyn Harmon. (2012) "Tent Cities." In: The Encyclopedia of Housing, 2nd Edition. Edited by: Andrew T. Carswell. Sage Publications, 2012.

"Portland continues to stand out as the progressive example of a municipality embracing alternative types of housing for homeless persons."

De Carlo, Giancarlo. "An Architecture of Participation." 1972. [a version is also in Perspecta, 17 (1980), 74-79].

De Carlo, Giancarlo, "Architecture's Public" (1969). in Architecture and Participation, ed. by Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu and Jeremy Till (Abingdon: Spon Press / Taylor & Francis, 2007), pp. 3-22.

DeFilippis, James. Unmaking Goliath: Community Control in the Face of Global Capital (2003).  (Multcolib has ebook). 

DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012). 

Dickson, Paul, and Thomas B. Allen. (2003). "Marching on History: When a 'Bonus Army' of World War I veterans converged on Washington, MacArthur, Eisenhower and Patton were there to meet them." Smithsonian Magazine, February 2003.

Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less. 2018. 

Dignity Village.

Dignity Village (2001). "Dignity Village 2001 & Beyond: Outline Strategies for a Sustainable Future." Prepared by Dignity Village residents and supporters for the City of Portland and its homeless residents.

Dignity Village Council. "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-." (2003?). 
[prepared in collaboration with Supporters including The City Repair Project].

Dignity Village Site Selection Committee, and Larson Legacy Foundation. "Dignity Village: Successes at Sunderland".  June 5, 2002. 

Dinh, Tran and Brewster, David and Fullerton, Anna and Huckaby, Greg and Parks, Mamie and Rankin, Sara and Ruan, Nantiya and Zwiebel, Elie (2018). "Yes, In My Backyard: Building ADUs to Address Homelessness." University of Denver Sturm College of Law Homeless Advocacy Policy Project, May 3, 2018. or 

Douglas, Gordon C.C. The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism. (2018). 

Duncan, J. (1978). "Men without property: the tramp's classification and use of public space." Antipode, 1(1), 24-34.

Ehrenreich, Ben (2009). "Tales of Tent City: In boom and in bust, homeless encampments are a product of inequality and neglect." The Nation, June 3, 2009.

Elia, Cory. "Keeping hope alive: seeking answers for the future." PSU Vanguard, March 16, 2018.

Elia, Cory.  "City of Portland threatens houseless advocates with fines." PSU Vanguard, April 13, 2018.

Ellickson, Robert C. (1996). "Controlling Chronic Misconduct in City Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Skid Rows, and Public-Space Zoning." The Yale Law Journal, Vol 105, 1165-1248. Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 408.

"Abstract: During the 1980s, panhandling, bench squatting, and other disorderly behavior became increasingly common in the downtown public spaces of American cities. This sharp rise in disorder was due to an increase in the size of the urban underclass and the weakening of both informal and legal controls on misconduct. An individual who chronically interferes with the correlative liberties of other pedestrians, Professor Ellickson argues, causes significant public harms, even though the harm at any instant may be slight. A promising way for a city to deal with chronic street misbehavior is to differentiate its rules of public conduct from place to place. In the 1990s, 'compassion fatigue' toward the 'homeless' (as street people are often, if inaccurately, labeled) prompted many of the nation's historically most tolerant cities to tighten their controls on panhandling and other street misconduct. In a handful of recent cases, some judges have thwarted these cities' efforts on federal constitutional grounds. Professor Ellickson criticizes these decisions. Destitution should not excuse chronic panhandlers and bench squatters from abiding by the rules-of-the-road that generally apply to users of open-access public places. Judicial decisions that federalize and constitutionalize the details of street law not only unduly limit local choices, but also impair the capacity of central cities to compete with alternative venues such as private shopping malls."

Elliott, Donald L., FAICP, and Peter Sullivan, AICP [2015]. "Tiny Houses, and the Not-So-Tiny Questions They Raise." Zoning Practice (American Planning Association), Issue Number 11, Tiny Houses (November 2015).

Engels, Frederick. "The Housing Question." (articles, 1872-73; reissued with new preface 1887).

Evans, Krista. "Integrating tiny and small homes into the urban landscape: History, land use barriers and potential solutions." Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol 11(3), pp.34-35, March 2018. [open access]. 

Evans, Krista (2020). "Tackling Homelessness with Tiny Houses: An Inventory of Tiny House Villages in the United States." The Professional Geographer, 29 Apr 2020.

"because there is no formal definition or commonly accepted standard for what constitutes a tiny house (Evans 2018a), any organization that defines itself as a tiny house village for the homeless was included in the database. This allows for an exploratory and encompassing examination of this recent approach toward addressing homelessness."

Evans, William N., and David C. Philips, Krista J. Ruffini. "Reducing and Preventing Homelessness: A Review of the Evidence and Charting a Research Agenda." NBER Working Paper No. 26232, September 2019.
(DOI): 10.3386/w26232.

Fathy, Hassan. Architecture for the Poor (1968). 

Feldman, Roberta M, and Sergio Palleroni, David Perkes, Bryan Bell. "Wisdom From the Field: Public Interest Architecture in Practice." 2013.

Ferry, Todd, and Sergio Palleroni. "Research + action: the first two years of the Center for Public Interest Design." in Wortham-Galvin, B.D., editor, Sustainable Solutions: Let Knowledge Serve the City, 2016.

Finkes, Rebecca. (2019). "City Sanctioned Homeless Encampments: A Case Study Analysis of Seattle’s City-Permitted Villages." Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Graduation with Honors Research Distinction in City and Regional Planning in the Knowlton School, The Ohio State University. May 2019.

Fishman, Robert (1989). Bourgeois Utopias.

Foscarinis, Maria.1 (1996). "Downward Spiral: Homelessness and Its Criminalization." 14 Yale Law & Policy Review. 1 (1996). 1 Executive Director, National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty.

"During the 1980s, efforts to establish a 'right to shelter' defined much of the activism, litigation, and debate about homelessness.18 Now, efforts to criminalize activities associated with homelessness are playing that defining role. This evolution follows the failure to address homelessness adequately, and the inability of shelter alone to do so. The trend toward criminalization threatens a further spiraling of minimal aspiration and standard from a cot in a shelter to a spot on the street. At the same time, much of the debate it has sparked presumes a polarity between the 'public's' interest in orderly public places and homeless persons' "'ight' to sleep and beg in public.'

Seeking to reverse the fall, this Article rejects that polarity. It rests instead on the premise that everyone has an interest in pleasant public places and that no one has an interest in living on the street. Activism and debate should focus on addressing the conditions that require people to live on the street, by defining and implementing solutions to homelessness. Longer-term measures that address the causes of homelessness-as opposed to merely providing emergency relief-offer the only realistic possibility of doing so.

"The Article begins with an overview of homelessness in America, including a summary of its size, nature, and causes. The Article reviews recent efforts by local governments to criminalize activities associated with homelessness, focusing on three major categories: begging, public place, and indirect restrictions. It discusses the purposes and effects of criminalization, noting that a common underlying goal is the removal of homeless people from all or selected city areas.

"The Article reviews recent court rulings in litigation challenging the constitutionality of such local government actions. It discusses divergent results and analyses, identifies common themes, and argues for a fact-based approach. The Article proposes that laws criminalizing activities associated with homelessness are unlikely to be both constitutional and effective in meeting their goals."

Fowler, Reverend Faith. (2018). Tiny Homes in a Big City. Detroit: Cass Community Publishing House, 2018. ISBN 9781942011750. Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. 

    "This review takes Rebuilding Communities [Vidal 1992] as a starting point to survey the community development literature, the community development field, and external environmental factors, in order to examine what has happened over the past fifteen years to shape the context in which urban community development corporations (CDCs) now operate. This paper is both a bounded literature review and an environmental scan. We identify categories of changes and influences on the community development field. We find that in the last fifteen years, the community development field has grown increasingly professionalized. Policy initiatives have also shaped the field. New evaluations of community development have been conducted and published. We now know much more about the potential and limits of CDCs than we did when the Rebuilding Communities (RC) study was launched in the late 1980s. At the same time, significant gaps in our knowledge of the community development field remain. In particular, there has been insufficient study of how the changes in this context have affected the work that CDCs do."

Gabriele, Kristen Elizabeth [2014]. "Design & Management Strategies for Micro-housing Units in Transitional Villages for the Homeless: an Exploration of Prototypes at Opportunity Village Eugene." M.Arch thesis for SUNY Buffalo, 1 September 2014. 

"The findings from this study provide design alternatives that can lead to improved user satisfaction in micro-housing prototypes." 

Gans. Herbert J. (1972). "The Positive Functions of Poverty." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 2. (Sep., 1972), pp. 275-289. DOI: PDF:

     "Abstract: Mertonian functional analysis is applied to explain the persistence of poverty, and fifteen functions which poverty and the poor perform for the rest of American society, particularly the affluent, are identified and described. Functional alternatives which would substitute for these functions and make poverty unnecessary are suggested, but the most important alternatives are themselves dysfunctional for the affluent, since they require some redistribution of income and power. A functional analysis of poverty thus comes to many of the same conclusions as radical sociological analysis, demonstrating anew Merton's assertion that functionalism need not be conservative in ideological outlook or implication."  

Gauldie, Enid. (1974). Cruel habitations ; a history of working-class housing 1780-1918. George Allen & Unwin, UK / Harper & Row, USA, 1974.

Unusual for discussing both rural and urban UK lower-class housing of the time. A basic point: rural housing was often as bad or worse than the urban housing usually focused on.

Gifford, Laura Jane. "Planning for a Productive Paradise: Tom McCall and the Conservationist Tale of Oregon Land-Use Policy." Oregon Historical Quarterly , Vol. 115, No. 4 (Winter 2014), pp. 470-501. Stable URL: PDF:

Gilles, Nellie. "For Portland, Ore., Woman, Home These Days Is Where She Parks Her Minivan." All Things Considered, June 23, 2020.

Glasser, Irene. (1994). Homelessness in global perspective. New York: G.K. Hall Reference. LC-93-25087. Available for checkout at Internet Archive:

Grabow, Stephen, and Allen Heskin. "Foundations for a Radical Concept of Planning." Journal of the American Institute of Planning, vol. 39, no. 2, 1973:106-14. DOI:  PDF:

Glaser, Gary. Justiceville – L.A.'s Homeless City (film recording) 1987.

Gragg, Randy. "Guerrilla City." Architecture, May 2002.

“In its ‘permasite’ configuration, Dignity Village could potentially be a working model for a new type of truly sustainable, high density and mixed use, organically developing urban village model. If developed according to Dignity Villages wishes, the village would enhance Portland’s reputation as being the most green city in America. ... Dignity Village hopes to become a demonstration site for solar and wind power, permaculture, environmental restoration, stormwater and greywater reuse and innovative use of recycled materials and alternative building techniques for construction.”

Grant, Elizabeth, and Kelly Greenop, Albert L. Refiti, Daniel J. Glenn, eds (2018). The Handbook of Contemporary Indigenous Architecture. Springer, 2018. E-ISBN 9789811069048.

Gregory, J. (1989). American Exodus: The Dustbowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Grenell, Peter (1972). "Planning for Invisible People: Some Consequences of Bureaucratic Values and Practices." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, Freedom to Build, 1972].  Grenell notes in footnote "I am indebted to Cora Du Bois, Zemurray Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University (retired), for introducing me to the term 'invisible people.'" 

 "Both countries have severe housing problems in spite of the United States' great wealth and India's surfeit of manpower. Leaders of both nations believe these problems can be solved through modern technology and organization if sufficient resources are available. A fundamental consequence of this optimistic view is an underestimation of the variability and complexity of human needs, and also of the great resource represented by the people themselves....The result of these attitudes and their underlying values is to make people seem 'invisible' to those persons -- chiefly members of large bureaucratic organizations -- whose professed task is to serve them. It is only when invisible people have made their presence felt, through political agitation or sheer force of numbers, that governments have been compelled to recognize their existence and to institute new or revised goals and programs. This is as true in India with its islands of affluence amidst a sea of poverty, as it is in the United States with its pockets of poverty in almost university plenty." 

Griffin, Anna. "Lio Alaalatoa spends nights on the streets, handing out food, water, blankets — and hope." with photography by Thomas Boyd. The Oregonian, January 31, 2015.

Groth, Paul. Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1994 1994.  Full text available in UC Press E-Books Collection. 

Hagerty, Colleen. "These moms were homeless. Now they are starting a housing revolution." The Lily (Washington Post), 6 February 2020.

Hailey, Charlie (2003). "Camp(site): architectures of duration and place." Ph.D dissertation, University of Florida, 2003. 

Hailey, Charlie (2008). Campsite: Architectures of Duration and Place. Louisiana State University Press, 2008.

Hamdi, Nabeel (1995). Housing without Houses: Participation, Flexibility, Enablement. Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing (formerly Intermediate Technology Publications), The Schumacher Centre, 1995.

Hamdi, Nabeel (2004). Small Change: About the art of practice and the limits of planning in cities. London: Earthscan, 2004.

Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019.

Harbarger, Molly. "Police sweep new homeless camp, Village of Hope." The Oregonian. Feb 02, 2018

Harms, Hans H. "User and Community Involvement in Housing and Its Effect on Professionalism." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, Freedom to Build, 1972].  

"Problems of insufficiency and inadequacy are immanent in the present housing supply structure, which is oriented toward the supply side and the construction of units according to procedures set by industry and government, and which subsidized industry, professional 'facilitating beneficiaries,' and the rich in order to provide housing for the poor...Direct subsidies to users in combination with a network of decentralized services could increase the autonomy of low-income families without setting up complicated mechanisms to regulate the lives of the poor or the process by which housing for the poor is created." 
Discusses 1968 Tent City in Boston.   

Harris, Richard (1999). "Slipping through the Cracks: The Origins of Aided Self-help Housing, 1918-53." Housing Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3, 281-309, 1999.

Harvey, David (1999). "Frontiers of insurgent planning" (1999). 

Harvey, David. Spaces of Hope (2000). [excerpts: Spaces of Hope]

Book description from publisher: "As the twentieth century drew to a close, the rich were getting richer; power was concentrating within huge corporations; vast tracts of the earth were being laid waste; three quarters of the earth's population had no control over its destiny and no claim to basic rights. There was nothing new in this. What was new was the virtual absence of any political will to do anything about it. Spaces of Hope takes issue with this. David Harvey brings an exciting perspective to two of the principal themes of contemporary social discourse: globalization and the body. Exploring the uneven geographical development of late-twentieth-century capitalism, and placing the working body in relation to this new geography, he finds in Marx's writings a wealth of relevant analysis and theoretical insight. In order to make much-needed changes, Harvey maintains, we need to become the architects of a different living and working environment and to learn to bridge the micro-scale of the body and the personal and the macro-scale of global political economy.Utopian movements have for centuries tried to construct a just society. Harvey looks at their history to ask why they failed and what the ideas behind them might still have to offer. His devastating description of the existing urban environment (Baltimore is his case study) fuels his argument that we can and must use the force of utopian imagining against all who say "there is no alternative." He outlines a new kind of utopian thought, which he calls dialectical utopianism, and refocuses our attention on possible designs for a more equitable world of work and living with nature. If any political ideology or plan is to work, he argues, it must take account of our human qualities. Finally, Harvey dares to sketch a very personal utopian vision in an appendix, one that leaves no doubt about his own geography of hope."

Hayden, Dolores. Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing, and Family Life. (??)

Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. Accessed 18 October 2019. 

Hays, R. A. (2002). "Habitat for Humanity: Building Social Capital through Faith Based Service." Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(3), 247–269. DOI: PDF: 

Heben, Andrew (2011). “Inside Tent Cities,” Planning Magazine, 2011. 

___. (2012). “From Camp to Village.” Communities Magazine, 2012.

___. (2013). "Opportunity Village: for and by the homeless.” The Global Urbanist, 2013. 

___. (2014b). "It Takes a Village" Tiny House Magazine, 2014.

___. (2014). Tent City Urbanism: From Self-Organized Camps to Tiny House Villages. (2014).

____. (2014b). "2014 in Review: A Pivotal Year for Tiny House Villages.", 30 December 2014.

____. (2015). "2015 in Review: Tiny House Villages progress as traditional housing options continue to fall short.", 30 December 2015. 

Herring, Christopher (2014). "The New Logics of Homeless Seclusion:Homeless Encampments in America's West Coast Cities." City & Community, 23 December 2014. PDF:

Herring, Christopher (2015a). "The Roots and Implications of the USA's Homeless Tent Cities." City, Vol. 19, No. 5, 689-701, 2015. (co-authored with Manuel Lutz):

Herring, Christopher (2015b). "Evicting the Evicted: Five Misleading Rationales for Homeless Camp Evictions." Progressive Planning Magazine, Fall 2015, 29-32.

Herring, Christopher (2015c). "Tent City, America." Places Journal. December 2015.

Herring, Christopher (2015d).  "Sheltering Those in Need: Architects Confront Homelessness" (Introductory Essay for the 2016 Berkeley Prize).

Herring, Christopher, and Dilara Yarbrough, Lisa Alatorre (2019). "Pervasive Penality: How the Criminalization of Poverty Perpetuates Homelessness." Social Problems, 2019, 0, 1–19.

Holtzman, Ben.  "When the Homeless Took Over." ["As the homeless and affordable housing crises become a focus on local and national campaigns, we must remember the rich history and critical contributions of homeless organizers."] Shelterforce, October 11, 2019.

Hopper, Kim, and Jim Baumohl. (1996). "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness." in Baumohl, Jim, ed. Homelessness in America (1996). Available for online loan at Internet Archive:

HousingWiki. "Hyperlocalism." accessed 6 December, 2019. 

Immerwahr, Daniel (2018). Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Harvard University Press, 2015. 

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff (J.B.). "The Movable Dwelling and How It came to America."  New Mexico Studies in the Fine Arts, 1982; reprinted in Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, Yale University Press, 1984. "the%20movable%20dwelling"&pg=PA89#v=onepage&q&f=false

Johnson, W. W. (1996). "Transcarceration and Social Control Policy: The 1980s and Beyond." Crime & Delinquency, 42(1), 114–126.

Jones, Lucy. The Big Ones: How Natural Disasters Have Shaped Us (and What We Can Do About Them). 2018. 

Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001.

Kahn, Lloyd. Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter (2012). 

Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. Shelter. (2nd edition, 2000). 

Kapur, Purnima. "From Ideas to Practice: 'Self-Help' in Housing From Interpretation to Application." M.S. Architecture Studies and M.C.P. thesis, MIT, 1989.  [advisor: Nabeel Hamdi].

Kavick, Ray. "First week at Camp Quixote."  Works In Progress (Thurston County Rainbow Coalition), March 2007.

Karakusevic, Paul, and Abigail Batchelor. Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars. RIBA Publishing / Taylor & Francis, 2017. 

Kern, Ken. The Owner-Built Home. (Homestead Press, 1972).

Kloehn, Greg. "Greg Kloehn on the ingenuity & resilience of homeless communities." presentation April 24, 2017, at Creative Mornings Oakland. [see also: Kloehn's project].

See also Q&A session from talk: Tim McCormick asked: "Do you think this could, or should, and how might it, go from 60 to 70 units [now] to lets say, 6000 units which is how many unsheltered there are in San Francisco and Oakland?"

Kolodny, R. (1986). "The emergence of self-help as a housing strategy for the urban poor." In R. Bratt, C. Hartman, & A. Meyerson (Eds.), Critical perspectives on housing (pp. 447–462). Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (Available for online loan from Internet Archive:

Kohn, W., & Mosher, H. (Codirectors). (2007). Tent cities toolkit: A multimedia grassroots primer [DVD]. Portland, OR: Kwamba Productions. 

Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).

Kosslyn, Neil. "A modern wiki for a modern internet: the Smallest Federated Wiki on The GovLab’s Demos for Democracy." GovLab Blog, August 15, 2014.

Kropotkin, Peter. The Conquest of Bread. (1892). 

Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." Dwell, August 21, 2017. 

Lakeman, Mark, for Dignity Village. (2001). "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future.

Langan, Celeste. (1995). Romantic Vagrancy: Wordsworth and the Simulation of Freedom. Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 9780521035101.

Larson, Jane E. (2002). "Informality, Illegality, and Inequality." 20 Yale Law & Policy Review 137. (2002).

Lewis, David G. (2016). "Houses of the Oregon Tribes." NDNHistory Research, December 31 2016.

Liccardo, Sam. (2020). Comments in "Reaching the Peak," in interactive Q&A with the mayors of San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, and a UCSF doctor. ABC 7 News (Bay Area), April 16, 2020. (video also at  At 16:40, and?

Discussing San Jose government's plan to use emergency funding [including FEMA, I think] to build non-congregate shelters that are durable, prefab structures, to provide transitional housing both immediately and longer-term.

Loftus-Farren, Zoe (2011). "Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States." California Law Review, Vol. 99, No. 4 (August 2011), pp. 1037-1081.

"However, tent cities, by definition, are unlikely ever to meet the standards we expect of more traditional and permanent housing, and most policy makers would agree that their residents deserve a higher standard of living than that attainable in an encampment. With these ethical implications in mind, tent cities may best be viewed as a temporary solution, one that can be embraced only so long as local governments are unable to afford or arrange for more suitable long-term solutions."  

Los Angeles County, Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." Accessed 11 March 2019.   

Lubenau, Anne-Marie. "Site Visit: A Tiny House Village in Olympia Offers a New Model for Housing the Homeless." ["Quixote Village is a self-managed community that provides permanent, supportive housing for homeless adults"]. Metropolis Magazine, April 20, 2015.

Lutz, Manuel. (2015). "Uncommon Claims to the Commons: Homeless Tent Cities in the US." in Dellenbaugh, Mary, et al, eds. (2015). Urban Commons: Moving Beyond State and Market. Birkhauser Verlag GmhH, 2015, p.101-116.  ISBN 978-3-03821-661-2.

'commoning' as key pattern in tent cities, encampments, villages. Not necessarily ideological or theorized, is a universal and age-old practical approach to surviving.

"It is noteworthy that these communities have managed to sustain and expand their commons for years or even decades...These makeshift communities not only keep their commons working as place of last resort that is safer than the streets, but also provide a structure for a more self-determined life of empowerment, engagement, and protest. Their practice is banal but also turns the dominant principle of capitalist production of space upside down. In a society in which land is treated as a commodity and where the non-properties are governied in dehumanizing ways, the practices in the camps illustrate a break in this logic. Tent city activists continue to renegotiate and politicize their political-economic circumstances and their homelessness management system. When they demand political and legal recognition is it not limited to a place for their own tent city but inevitably extends to opening opportunities for more such tent commons."

"Take Back the Land organizer Max Rameau, of the Center for Pan-African Development, argued that the Umoja Village was not just about gentrification, but was a full "land struggle," in the mold of Brazil's MST (the Landless Workers' Movement) and similar movements in South Africa. As an advocate of Pan-Africanism, Rameau asserted black people should control the land in the black community, as manifested by Umoja Village.

"The village itself was built with the help of local white and Latino anarchists, operating under the black political leadership of Take Back the Land."

"As one activist stated, tent cities are 'simultaneously the most and the least radical response to a disturbing crisis.'" (6) - Rameau, Take Back the Land.

MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-).  Marcuse, P. (2016). "After Exposing the Roots of Homelessness – What?" Urban Geography, 38(3), 357–359. doi:10.1080/02723638.2016.1247601.

"I am deeply impressed by the contributions to this symposium and the debates that have led up to it, and happy that my little essay of more than 25 years ago [Marcuse, Peter. "Neutralizing Homelessness." Socialist Review, 1988. issue 1] fed into them. But at the same time I am saddened by its continued timeliness.
"It is now clear that we know enough about homelessness and its causes and effects to understand how abhorrent it is within an affluent society, and further that we know enough to be aware of what is needed to end it, what can and should be done. I write “‘we’ know enough”: at least no one seriously argues today that homelessness is inevitable as a natural and healthy phenomenon, needed to keep society going, providing an incentive for those too lazy or too stupid to get to work and take care of themselves. "So why do we still have homelessness in countries like the United States today?" [...]
"But consider the further implications of acting on what we know about homelessness, pursing its implications critically in public policy formation. The money and resources that are needed to provide adequate housing for all must either come from the private profit-motivated sector—we live in a capitalist society—, or from government. In the private sector that means raising wages and incomes substantially at the bottom and the middle; and in the government sector, raising taxes at the top. Clearly controversial. Power to bring about either event does not lie with those pushing to solve homelessness." "What needs to be done urgently today—yet will be done gradually and, ultimately, tomorrow—is really pretty clear."

McCormick, Tim. "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book." London School of Economics, LSE Impact Blog, 17 January 2013.

McCormick, Tim (2015). "How might we put affordable housing on disused & small sites in San Francisco? Medium, Nov 3, 2015.

McCormick, Tim (2015). "Tiny Houses for the Homeless in San Francisco?" Medium, Nov 18, 2015.   

McCormick, Tim (2016). "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016.

McCormick, Tim (2016b). "Agile Housing -- a pattern language." 2016.   

McCormick, Tim (2018). "The New Urban Autonomous House." Medium, May 5, 2018.  

McCormick, Tim (2019). "New Starter Homes: creating a network of highly affordable, detachable, ownable, 'starter,' smart, tiny homes in Portland." [project proposal, originally created for Meyer Memorial Trust's 2018 Million Month Challenge grant program, 2018]. 

McCoy, Mike. "Farm Labor Camps: A Look Back at How America Solved the Crisis During the Great Depression." Valley Ag Voice, 3 March 2020.

McCulloch, Heather, with Lisa Robinson (2001). "Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms." Oakland, CA: PolicyLink. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from:

Mehaffy, Michael M. (2019). A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. Sustasis Press, forthcoming 2019.

Menzies, Robert. (2015). "Transcarceration." in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Edited by George Ritzer, 2015.

Miller, Abbilyn Marie (2012). "Determining Critical Factors in Community-Level Planning of Homeless Service Projects."  Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Landscape Architecture in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2012.

Mingoya, Catherine. (2015). “Building Together. Tiny House Villages for the Homeless: A Comparative Case Study.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications."

Mitchell, Don. (2011). "Homelessness, American Style." Urban Geography, 32:7, 933-956, DOI: 10.2747/0272-3638.32.7.933.

Mitchell, Don. "Tent Cities: Interstitial Spaces of Survival." in Brighenti, Andrea Mubim ed. Urban Interstices: The Aesthetics and the Politics of the In-between. Ashgate Publishing, 2013. [reprinted with minor changes in Mean Streets: Homelessness, Public Space, and the Limits of Capital (2020)]. [see also Don Mitchell for discussion/excerpts].

Mitchell, Don. Mean Streets: Homelessness, Public Space, and the Limits of Capital. University of Georgia Press, 2020. [see also Don Mitchell for discussion/excerpts].

Mitchell, Ryan. Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet. (2014).

Molinar, Robert L. (2018) "Self-Organization as a Response to Homelessness: Negotiating Autonomy and Transitional Living in a 'Village' Community.'" A Dissertation Presented to the Department of Sociology and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, June 2018.

Monahan, Rachel (2017). "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply."  [on Rob Justus / Home First Development].  Willamette Week, March 21, 2017. 

Monahan, Rachel (2018). "With Plans to Build Housing for the Homeless, a Portland Developer is Privatizing Socialism." ["Reason no. 16 to love Portland right now"]. Willamette Week, 14 February 2018.
Moore, Steven A, and Sergio Palleroni, eds. "The Alley Flat Initiative: Topics in Sustainable Development 2008 Report." University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture, Center for Sustainable Development.  July 2008. 

Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36.

Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." 

Munzer, Stephen R. (1997). "Ellickson on Chronic Misconduct in Urban Spaces: Of Panhandlers, Bench Squatters, and Day Laborers." Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, vol. 32, no. 1, Winter 1997, p. 1-48.

Murphy, M. (2014). “Tiny Houses as Appropriate Technology.” Communities, No. 165, Winter 2014: Fellowship International Community.

Myers, John. "Fixing Urban Planning with Ostrom: Strategies for existing cities to adopt polycentric, bottom-up regulation of land use." Prepared for delivery at the Workshop on the Ostrom Workshop (WOW6) conference, Indiana University Bloomington, June 19–21, 2019. Working draft dated 31st May 2019.

National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty (2017). "Tent City, USA: The Growth of America’s Homeless Encampments and How Communities are Responding." December 2017.

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Noterman, Elsa. (2020): Taking back vacant property, Urban Geography.

Ocobock, Paul. (2008). "Vagrancy and Homelessness in Global and Historical Perspective." (Introduction to A. L. Beier, A. L., and Paul Ocobock, eds. (2008). Cast Out: Vagrancy and Homelessness in Global and Historical Perspective. Ohio University Press, 2008. [Open Access].

O'Connor, Charles James, et al (1913). San Francisco Relief Survey; the organization and methods of relief used after the earthquake and fire of April 18, 1906.  New York: Survey Associates, 1913..

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Oregonian Editorial Board. "The bold promise to reduce homelessness: Editorial Agenda 2015." The Oregonian, Updated Jan 09, 2019; Posted Oct 03, 2015.
     "Dignity Village and Right 2 Dream Too, meanwhile, are ghettos operating successfully by their own logic, but they provide no working model for long-term accommodation to the city's burgeoning homeless population."

Oswill, Andrés (2016). "The Landscape: Tiny and Very Small Houses." Metroscape (published by the Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies, PSU), Summer 2016.

Pacheco, Antonio. "MADWORKSHOP’s Homeless Studio at USC delves into rapid rehousing prototype design." The Architect's Newspaper, March 30, 2017.  

Palleroni, Sergio (2006) "Building to Learn/Learning to Build" [Collaboration Between a Mexican Squatter Community and American Architecture Students]. Oz: Vol. 28. 

Palleroni, Sergio, & Merkelbach, Christina Eichbaum (2004). Studio at large: Architecture in Service of Global Communities. Seattle, Wash: University of Washington Press.  

Palleroni, Sergio, and Vikramaditya Prakash. "Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." Architecture Talk (podcast hosted by Prakash).  March 13, 2019.

Palmeri, Jordan. (2012). “Small Homes: Benefits, Trends and Policies”. As presented by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.
Retrieved from:   

Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by  KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018.

Parker, Will, with photographs by Leah Nash. "Does Oregon Have the Answer to High Housing Costs?" The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 23, 2019.

Parr, Evanie and Rankin, Sara (2018). "It Takes a Village: Practical Guide for Authorized Encampments." Seattle University Homeless Rights Advocacy Project, May 3, 2018. Available at SSRN:  

Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 

Presentation slides:
Video: (2:40 - 33:20). 

"We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
"Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."

Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia. European Journal of Homelessness, Vol 11, No. 2, December 2017.

    "Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose."

Parvin, Alastair, and David Saxby, Cristina Cerulli, Tatjana Schneider (2011). "A Right to Build: The next mass-housebuilding industry." Architecture 00 and University of Sheffield School of Architecture, 2011.

Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve (2016). "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016.

Parvin, Alastair (2017). "Development without debt: Re-designing the way we invest in housing.", 27 January 2017.

"Finance the homes separately from the land:
One of the most confusing (and dumb) characteristics of the ‘current trader’ model is that it bundles the cost of the land into the cost of development. By financing the home (a consumer durable) separately from the land (a licensed property asset), in many cases it is possible to massively improve affordability. This might include leasing the land rather than selling it (arguably far more responsible in the case of publicly-owned land), deferring purchase over time, or collective purchase of the land. For example, a neighbourhood development company can purchase the land, represent a more appealing prospect to investors, because the risk of defaulting is spread over the whole neighbourhood. Matthew Benson of Rettie’s has proposed the use of ‘land bonds’, whereby a neighbourhood development company (for example a cooperative) could finance the cost of land by issuing 25 year bonds."  

Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Affordable Land." 2018. 

Petteni, Marta and Leickly, Emily, "Kenton Women’s Village Update and Survey" (2019). Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative Publications and Presentations. 10.

Piven, F. F., & Cloward, R. (1971). Regulating the poor: the functions of public welfare. Pantheon, 1971; 2nd ed Vintage Books, 1993.   

Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." European Journal of Homelessness, Vol 5, No. 2, December 2011. 

Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?"

Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." .

Prakash, Vikramaditya. (2019). "Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." Architecture Talk (podcast hosted by Prakash).  March 13, 2019.

Przybylinski, Stephen. (2020). "Securing legal rights to place: mobilizing around moral claims for a houseless rest space in Portland, Oregon." Urban Geography, DOI:10.1080/02723638.2020.1719307. [focuses on Right 2 Dream Too rest area].

Rameau, Max. Take Back the Land – Land, Gentrification and the Umoja Village Shantytown (Miami: Nia Interactive Press, 2008), 7.

Rankin, Sara (January 28, 2020). "Hiding Homelessness: The Transcarceration of Homelessness." California Law Review, Forthcoming.

Raymond, Eric Steven (2003).The Art of Unix Programming.  

Ribton-Turner, Charles James (1887). A history of vagrants and vagrancy, and beggars and begging. London: Chapman and Hall, 1887.

Richards, Rob.  "A Tale of Tent Cities: A Camp Quixote Retrospective.", Oct 25, 2013. 

Roy, Ananya (2003). “Paradigms Of Propertied Citizenship: Transnational Techniques of Analysis,” Urban Affairs Review, vol. 38, no. 4 (2003): 463–91. DOI: PDF: 

"Abstract: The American paradigm of propertied citizenship has far-reaching consequences for the propertyless, as in the brutal criminalization of the homeless. Activist groups, such as the anarchist squatter organization Homes Not Jails, have sought to challenge this paradigm through innovative techniques of property takeovers, invocations of American traditions of homesteading, and Third World tactics of self-help and informality. This study trains a transnational lens on both the paradigm and its subversions. Posing Third World questions of the First World, the author seeks to unsettle the normalized hierarchy of development and underdevelopment and explores lessons that can be learned from different modes of shelter struggles."

Roy, Ananya Roy and Nezar AlSayyad, eds. (2004). Urban Informality. Berkeley: University of California, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2004. 

Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019]. 

San José, City. "Emergency Interim Housing Response to COVID-19 and City Shelter Crises Declaration." Accessed 27 June 2020.

Schmid,  Thacher. "A New Self-Managed Homeless Village Just Sprang Up in Northeast Portland." ["The 'Village of Hope' Sits on City-Owned Land, and Is the First Such Community to Emerge Under Mayor Ted Wheeler"]. Portland Mercury, Jan 28, 2018.

Schmidt, Alexandra (2017). "The Big Politics of Tiny Houses: Zoning Villages for Homeless Individuals." Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Urban Studies, University of Michigan. April 2017. 

Schuman, Tony. (1986). "The Agony and the Equity: A Critique of Self-Help Housing." In R. Bratt, C. Hartman, & A. Meyerson (Eds.), Critical perspectives on housing (pp. 447–462). Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (Available for online loan from Internet Archive:

Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as If People Mattered. London: Blond and Briggs, 1973.

Segel, Ginger (2015). "Tiny Houses: A Permanent Supportive Housing Model." Community Frameworks, (Bremerton & Spokane, Washington). Mar. 2015.  

Shearer, Heather & Paul Burton (2019). "Towards a Typology of Tiny Houses." Housing, Theory and Society, 36:3, 298-318, DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2018.1487879.

Shenk, Timothy (2015). "Booked #1: What’s Wrong With Community Development?" [interview with Daniel Immerwahr, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015). Dissent, January 29, 2015.
    Immerwahr: "I want a left that can operate on all scales. And part of that involves giving up this uncritical deference to 'communities.'"

Silverman, R. M. (2005). Caught in the Middle: Community Development Corporations (CDCs) and the Conflict between Grassroots and Instrumental Forms of Citizen Participation. Journal of the Community Development Society, 36 (2): 35-51. 

     "This article examines the role of citizen participation in community development corporations (CDC). It is argued that CDCs are caught between two distinct forms of participation: instrumental participation that focuses on activities that support project and program activities of CDCs, and grassroots participation that focuses on expanding the role of citizens in local decision-making processes. A continuum based on these two forms of citizen participation is introduced. It is suggested that CDCs are often in the middle of the continuum where they must balance pressures to expand the scope of grassroots participation against the need to use citizen participation techniques to facilitate project and program implementation. The article is based on a series of in-depth interviews with the executive directors of CDCs in Detroit, Michigan. Recommendations growing out of the research focus on how the tendency toward conflicts between the instrumental goals of CDCs and the longstanding value of grassroots activism can be managed better."

Simon, William H. (2002). The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.

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Solomon, Molly.  "What Would 'Housing as a Human Right' Look Like in California?" KQED News, 12 Feb 2020.

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Sparks, Tony. "Citizens without property: Informality and political agency in a Seattle, Washington homeless encampment." Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space. September 20, 2016.
from Abstract:

"This article attempts to broaden and deepen the conversation on informal dwellings in the US by focusing on the tent encampment as a site of creative political agency and experimentation. Drawing upon a body of work referred to by some as “subaltern urbanism”, I examine how everyday practices of camp management produce localized forms of citizenship and governmentality through which “homeless” residents resist stereotypes of pathology and dependence, reclaim their rational autonomy, and recast deviance as negotiable difference in the production of governmental knowledge. Consideration of these practices, I argue, opens up the possibility of a of a view of encampments that foregrounds the agency of the homeless in the production of new political spaces and subjectivities."

Sparks, Tony. (2016). "Neutralizing Homelessness, 2015: Tent cities and ten year plans." Urban Geography, 38(3), 348–356. DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2016.1247600.

Speer, Jessie (2018).  "The rise of the tent ward: Homeless camps in the era of mass incarceration." Political Geography, Volume 62, 2018, Pages 160-169.

"Abstract: In the era of mass incarceration, services for the homeless often involve mechanisms of confinement and discipline. Over the past decade, homeless communities in cities across the US have developed large-scale encampments in which residents survive outside the purview of official homelessness management systems. Most cities have responded by evicting campers and destroying their tents and shanties. Yet some local governments have instead legalized encampments, while imposing varying degrees of spatial control and surveillance on camp residents. In so doing, they have created unique new spaces for managing homelessness. This article terms these spaces “tent wards” to reflect their dualistic functions of both care and custody. Based on secondary sources and ethnographic research from 2013, I analyze nearly a dozen tent wards in cities across the US, and engage a more in-depth study of the development of such spaces in Fresno, California. I argue that the rise of tent wards calls attention to the need for a renewed focus on the relationship between incarceration and welfare in the US, and the ways in which a diverse range of spaces function together to isolate and discipline entire segments of the population."

Spevak, Eli, and Madeline Kovacs, Orange Splot LLC. "Character-Compatible, Space-Efficient Housing Options for Single-Dwelling Neighborhoods." Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program, and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. May 2016.
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"This paper questions the viability of an urban redevelopment model that relies on small communiry development corporations (CDCs) and proposes an alternative. Because most CDCs are severely undercapitalized, they can not keep up with accelerating decay. Their existence, and the emphasis placed on their supposed successes, allow elites to blame poor neighborhood CDCs rather than external conditions for redevelopment failure. The model also emphasizes that CDCs be community-based, but because their resource base is controlled from outside the neighborhood there is really very little community control over CDCs. CDCs may even delegitimize more empowerment-focused community organizing attempts by making them appear radical. Consequently, the CDC development process my actually disorganize poor communities by creating internal competition or disrupting social networks. An alternative model of neighborhood redevelopment is proposed which emphasizes community organizing, community-controlled planning, and high-capacity multi-local CDCs held accountable through a strong community organizing process."

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Tsemberis, S. (2010b) Housing First: The Pathways Model to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness and Addiction (Hazelden: Minnesota).  

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"We can then distribute the ideal-typical forms of sociospatial seclusion in the two-dimensional space defined by those two axes (see Figure 1): elective versus forced, at I the top or at the bottom. Looking at the top right-hand side quadrant, on the choice side and high in social and physical space, you find those people who choose isolation and seek privacy, who wish to be among the likes of themselves or to avoid debased populations and unsavory activities. This is self -seclusion at the top fueled by in-group orientation is represented by elite enclaves or traditional upper-class districts in the city....So at the top you find noble activities, exercised by powerful persons, endowed with the material and symbolic capital to exclude others and to self-seclude, while at the bottom are bunched up ignoble activities and tainted populations deprived of economic and cultural capital, the dispossessed and the dishonored." "The prosecutorial approach commonly adopted by social analysts has prevented them from recognizing that the ghetto is a two-faced contraption: it is at once and inseparably an instrument of subordination and a conduit for protection, unification, and cohesion. We must be alert to the hidden and counterintuitive benefits of ghettoization, which offers a subordinate ethnoracial category a vehicle for self-organization and mobilization and thence allows them to leverage their 'power from below.'" [referring to argument of his forthcoming book The Two Faces of the Ghetto].

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Ward, P., and G. C. Macoloo (1992). "Articulation theory and self-help housing practice in the 1990s." Urban Studies 16 (1): 60-80.

"Explores the proposition that many aspects of self-help housing practices are being undermined by the penetration of capital accumulation processes at the urban periphery of Third World cities. Specifically, the authors investigate the ways in which different modes of housing production may be articulated - economically, politically and ideologically. Drawing upon evidence in two principal locations (Mexico and Kenya), they analyse the methods and costs of land acquisition by low-income groups, and the production and consumption of building materials for self-help construction. The authors conclude by identifying ways to restore a dialogue between those academics interested primarily in critical theory and housing production, and those researchers and practitioners who are more concerned with policy formulation and implementation."

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